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  • PCOD/PCOS affects the menstrual cycle of a women
  • PCOD/PCOS has long-term effects on a women’s body.
  • PCOD/PCOS is a lifestyle disorder due to hormonal balance.

Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) / Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in 2022 is a hormonal disorder that affects your menstural cycle and is common in females of child bearing age group.

Women with PCOS may have prolonged menstural cycle or amenorrhoea. They may also have excess male hormones which causes symptoms like acne, hirsutism, etc.

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What are the Signs and symptoms of PCOS

Signs and symptoms of PCOS may vary , but the most common symptoms experienced by a woman are:-

1. Irregular periods

Cycle length in PCOS increases.The periods may come after 2-3 months or may be longer than that.Then there may be abnormally heavy bleeding.The amount of blood flow may decrease also.This is called oligomenorrhoea.

2. Hirsutism

There may be excessive hair growth on face, chin, abdomen and other parts of body. The texture of the hairs is also thick and coarse.

3. Severe acne

4. Weight gain

The weight gain in PCOD is very difficult to loose and is mainly on the waist.

5. Acanthosis nigricans

Dark and thick skin on the back of neck, armpits, breasts may be seen. This is due to insulin resistance.

6. Loss of hair

Male pattern baldness

What are the causes ?

The exact cause of developing PCOS is not known. Multiple factors play a role. This is more like a lifestyle disorder.

1. Low grade inflammation

There is a low grade inflammation that stimulates the ovary to produce testosterones and thus causing the androgen excess symptoms.

2. Heredity

This also plays a role in developing PCOD.

3. Excess insulin

in the body increases the production of androgens and thus causing hormonal imbalance and difficulty in ovulation.

4. Excess androgen

production may be there in obese females which leads to hormonal imbalance.

What are the long term Complications?

PCOS problem should not be taken lightly. There are many complications of PCOS or PCOD problem that require medical attention. These are-

1. Infertility

Women with PCOS face difficulty in conceiving as in majority of them dominant follicle is not formed and thus ovulation does not take place. In some ovulation timing can not be predicted due to prolonged cycles.

2. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Women having PCOD are prone to developing type 2 diabetes in their later life. Risk is high in those patients who are obese.

3. Gestational diabetes or pregnancy induced hypertension

Pregnant women who have history of PCOD are more prone to developing diabetes or hypertension during pregnancy.

4. Miscarriage

If a women who has PCOD conceives, there are are chances of miscarriage/ missed abortion.

5. Preterm delivery

6. Metabolic syndrome

It is a cluster of condition that includes high blood pressure, high sugar levels and abnormal cholesterol levels. This syndrome increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.

7. Anxiety, depression, sleep apnoea

8. Endometrial cancer

It is the cancer of lining of uterus.

How is PCOS treated?

PCOD is a lifestyle disorder and is due to hormonal imbalance. There is no cure for PCOS but it can be managed with life style modifications, proper diet, exercise and medications.


The optimal treatment of PCOS is a multifactorial approach involving diet and lifestyle modification, medications and supplements

Management in cases of PCOS consists of following:-

1. Balanced Nutritious diet

Diet is very important part of management.

1. Don’t skip meals. Consume moderate amount of whole grains, proteins and healthy fats at regular intervals.
2. Avoid fats completely.
3. Eat a lots of fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts, whole grains.
4. Include foods rich in zinc like spinach, pomegranate, kidney beans,  sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds.
   When present in combination with magnesium, the two nutrients curb PCOS symptoms like acne, hair loss, hirsutism.
5. Include high fibre carbohydrate in the diet.
6. Eat smaller meals and include healthy snacks.

2. Regular exercise

Exercise helps in loss of weight. Losing even around 5-10% of body weight make a significant impact on your PCOS symptoms.

Exercise and Yoga are especially helpful for people with mild to moderate depression. These stimulates the release of endorphins in body which are feel good hormones.


Practicing yoga may help decrease testosterone levels and alleviate the symptoms of anxiety and depression in women with PCOS

3. Symptomatic treatment

TREATMENT OF ACNE- Acne may be treated with topical agents or oral antibiotics. It has been seen that when the hormone level balances with treatment, acne issues resolves.

1. Wash your face twice a day.
2. Don't  over wash. Washing your face should be completed within 30 seconds.
3. Make sure to remove your make up at night.
4. Sanitize your mobile phone regularly as it is continuously in contact with your face.
5. Change your pillow cover frequently. 

TREATMENT OF EXCESS HAIR GROWTH: When the hormonal cycle become balanced, new hair stops growing. But previous old hairs have to be treated by waxing, epilators or laser treatment.

4. Low dose oral contraceptive pills

These pills balance the hormonal levels and thus regulate the menstural cycle. Regular monthly bleeding decreases the risk of endometrial cancer. Some pills also lowers the level of testosterone and thus relieves the androgen symptoms.

5. Other agents

Your doctor may prescribe some additional supplements like metformin, berbitrol, anti oxidants, myoinositol to help in the treatment of PCOS.

It should be noted that PCOS can effectively be managed with a healthy life style and positive attitude.


  • PCOS is a common endocrine disorder that affects the women of child bearing age group.
  • The exact cause is unknown but life style and genetic factors play a role.
  • The common symptoms are menstural irregularity, weight gain, hirsutism, acne.
  • If left untreated, PCOS lead to other health problems as discussed above.




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